Biodiversity is a term used for the collection of flora and fauna in an area. The prime location of rich biodiversity that is also under the risk of destruction is called a Biodiversity Hotspot. These areas need immediate attention to ensure we thrive well in the coming years. India is regarded as one of the richest countries when it comes to biodiversity and this is easily evident from its land demography. Located in the Indomalaya Ecozone, India comprises around 3 of the 35 biodiversity hotspots across the world. The third one is somewhat lying in North-East India.
If you are interested in visiting these places, here are all the details about the biodiversity hotspots in India. This topic is bound to pique your interest and push you to book cheap flights to India.
The Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
The Western Ghats is a biodiversity hotspot in the country located along the west of Peninsular India. Being closer to the ocean, the areas receive better rainfall. Most deciduous and rainforests of India are found in the western edge of the Peninsular. You will find 62% of reptiles and 77% of amphibians that are not found anywhere else across the globe. Sri Lanka in the southern region of India is a country known for its rich species. Sri Lanka is connected to India via a land bridge of a width of almost 140 kilometers.
In this region, there are over 6000 vascular plants belonging to almost 2500 genus. Out of these, 3500 are endemic. As per belief, most spices in the world such as cardamom and black pepper found their origin in the Western Ghats. Most of the species are believed to exist in the Agasthyamalai Hills, in the extreme southern end of India. The hills are also home to around 450 bird species, 260 reptiles, 175 amphibians and 140 mammals. Unfortunately, this beautiful area of biodiversity is at the brink of extinction. Why do we say that? The original area of vegetation in the area was a sprawling 190,000sq.kms which has now come down to only 43,000sq.kms. You can find only 1.5% of the actual forest still existing in the boundaries of Sri Lanka.
The Eastern Himalayas
The Eastern Himalayas biodiversity hotspot of India extends to cover Northeast India, Bhutan, Southern, Eastern and Central Nepal. The Eastern Himalayas are the highest mountains across the world and boast of some of the world’s highest peaks that includes K2 and Mount Everest. Some of the main rivers also originate from these Himalayas and they comprise over 100 mountains crossing the height of 7200 meters.
Talking about the rich biodiversity in the region, there are over 163 endangered species that includes Wild Asian Water Buffalo and the one-horned Rhinoceros and as many as 12 amphibians, 45 mammals, 17 reptiles, 3 invertebrates, 50 birds and 36 plant species. Another peculiarly endangered species found in the Eastern Himalayan region is the Relict Dragonfly and Newt. Moving to the fauna, the region consists of over 10,000 plant species, a third of these species are endemic and impossible to find elsewhere in the world. Some of the threatened species here include Western Tragopan, Cheer Pheasant, Himalayan Quail, White-bellied Heron, Himalayan Vulture, etc. One can also spot around 300 species of mammals here such as the sloth bears, Asiatic wild dogs, blue sheep, back beer, snow leopard and the wild water buffalo. The Namdapha Flying Squirrel is on the brink of extinction and needs constant attention. They are few places in India that will make you happy instantly.
The Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot of India is stretched to several other countries covering Myanmar, North-Eastern India, Thailand, Yunnan Provinces of China, Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia. The distance it covers is around 2M sq. kms.
Over the last few decades, the rich biodiversity of the region is degrading. Recently six mammal species were discovered in the area that include Annamite Muntjac, Large-Antlered Muntjac, Leaf Deer, Annamite Striped Rabbit, Gray-Shanked Douc and Saola. Monkeys, Gibbons and Langurs are also found in the region below the count of hundred. One might also come across the endemic Freshwater Turtle species. Not just these, over 13-0 bird species are also found in the Indo-Burma region including Gray-crowned Crocias, Orange-necked Partridge and White-eared Night-Heron. Most of the bird species are endangered. Half of the 13,500 plant species found here are endemic and are impossible to find elsewhere across the globe.
If nature intrigues you and you feel a responsibility to everything that makes life possible then book last minute flights to India and make a change for the betterment of our future.
Significant reason behind loss of biodiversity in hotspots
Some of the most important reasons to mark behind the loss of biodiversity in these regions are:
- The destruction of habitats
- Excessive climate change
- Poaching and hunting
- Environmental degradation and pollution
It is high time that serious measures must be taken for biodiversity protection. You will too realize this once you visit any of these biodiversity hotspots. So what are you waiting for? Book business class flights to India and witness the natural beauty first hand.